La nanotecnología y los retos de sostenibilidad del sistema agroalimentario

Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor

Resumen


¿Pueden pequeñas cosas ayudarnos a reducir el hambre, la mala nutrición y las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos? En realidad, la nanotecnología es al mismo tiempo un enfoque científico y un conjunto de tecnologías emergentes, tal vez las más detalladamente observadas en la historia. Actualmente, es un blanco de investigación en el cual se focalizan muchos de los recursos destinados a la financiación en ciencia, tecnología e innovación por parte de agencias públicas y privadas.

De la nanotecnología se ha dicho, por más de una década, que guarda un potencial revolucionario que abarcaría la mayoría de las actividades productivas humanas, incluyendo aquellas propias del sector agroalimentario. Este sector, del cual depende directamente el abastecimiento de alimentos y, por ende, la seguridad alimentaria, sin duda enfrenta retos extraordinarios derivados de las presiones demográficas, las limitaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos como agua, energía y tierra, las pérdidas de alimentos en las cadenas de suministro y el cambio climático.

En esta revisión se busca dar una visión introductoria a las potenciales aplicaciones de la nanotecnología relacionadas con alimentos y nutrición, en el contexto de los problemas globales de sostenibilidad. Asimismo, brinda consideraciones sobre los riesgos potenciales, el marco regulador y el rol de la nanotecnología agroalimentaria en los países en desarrollo


Palabras clave


Nanoestructuras; Nanomateriales; Sistema agroalimentario; Seguridad alimentaria

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18270/rsb.v7i2.2193

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