Enfermedad coronaria asintomática en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2
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Palabras clave

Diabetes mellitus
Enfermedad coronaria
Enfermedades asintomáticas
Aterosclerosis

Resumen

Introducción: la enfermedad coronaria es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial; se sabe que la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es un factor de riesgo importante para esta patología y que puede producir una forma asintomática o con manifestaciones atípicas.


Objetivos: exponer los principales datos epidemiológicos, pronósticos y determinantes de la enfermedad coronaria asintomática en DM2 y discutir las formas de tamización y su utilidad en diabéticos asintomáticos.


Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed, LILACS y SciELO usando las palabras clave “Diabetes Mellitus, type 2”, “Coronary disease”, “Coronary Artery Disease”, “Coronary Vessels”, “Atherosclerosis”, “Arteriosclerosis”, “Asymptomatic Diseases”, “Asymptomatic”, “Silent” y “Myocardcial infarction”, ajustando la búsqueda según las necesidades de cada base de datos. Se incluyeron artículos que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y no los de exclusión, a consideración de los autores, así como algunas referencias adicionales.


Resultados: se revisó el título y resumen de 504 artículos encontrados en las bases de datos, tras lo cual se escogieron 81 para su lectura total. De ellos, 56 fueron incluidos, así como 48 publicaciones adicionales conocidas por los autores o referenciados en las artículos leídos, lo que dio un total de 104 artículos incluidos en la revisión final.


Conclusiones: los pacientes con DM2 presentan altas prevalencias de enfermedad coronaria asintomática que aumentan en presencia de otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o de mayor duración o progresión de la DM2. Si bien existen varios métodos anatómicos o funcionales para su detección, la tamización de esta población no ha mostrado beneficio alguno, por lo que no puede recomendarse de rutina en asintomáticos.

https://doi.org/10.18270/rsb.v9i1.2642
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